Research Performing Organisations
Egypt has been a fertile ground for science and scientists for thousands of years; and you do not have to look hard for evidence. Egypt possesses one of the most developed and diversified economies in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and service at almost equal production levels.
Research communities in Egypt exist in universities, governmental institutions, private sector and NGOs. There are 22 Government universities, 33 private universities and 187 research centres and institutes, with 11 of them affiliated with the Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology. These entities cover all fields of science and technology; such as the National Research Centre, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. Moreover, there are many specialized research institutes existing in other ministries such as the Agriculture Research Centre, affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture.
The total R&D expenditure in the field of science and technology for the year 2004/2005 was 1.3 billion Egyptian Pounds. As a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, R&D expenditure was 0.24 per cent, where the expenditure increased by about 4 times during the last year. The government targets to reach 2% GERD/GDP in the upcoming 3 years.
National Research Center (NRC)
Established in 1956, the National Research Centre (NRC) is the major multi-disciplinary R&D Institute in Egypt. It is the largest of all institutions affiliated with the Ministry of Scientific Research; devoted to basic and applied research. The research plan of NRC is in accordance with the National priority and Strategy of the State Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology. NRC objectives are:
1. Provide scientific services and consultations
2. Train graduates and researchers
3. Contribute to national upgrading of science & dissemination of knowledge
4. Strengthen scientific linkages and cooperation with local and international organizations
5. Guide the national economy
NRC board of directors consists of: President, vice president for research, vice president for technical affairs, heads of 14 research divisions and 5 experienced members selected on personal merit.
Research activities and groups
In-house projects -governmental budget (18%)
National projects – contracts (30%)
International projects (52%)
Renewable energy, water, HCV, obesity, cancer, biotechnology, diabetes, agriculture, human genetic, waste management, functional foods, stem cells and material sciences.
NRC retains scientific channels with regional and international universities and research centres through projects, contracts and scientific agreements. The highest NRC cooperation is with Europe (58%) followed by America (21%), and Asia (20%).Contact details: National Research Center El-Bohous street 12622-Dokki Cairo, Egypt Phone: 002 02 333 Fax: 002 02 333 Internet: www.nrc.sci.eg
Agricultural Research Center (ARC)
The General Authority for Agricultural Research in Egypt was established pursuant to the Presidential Decree No. 2425 issued in 1971, that unified all research functions within the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) under one administration. In 1983, the Presidential Decree No. 19 endorsed the establishment of the Agricultural Research Centre (ARC) as a scientific research and extension institution.
ARC is a semi-autonomous research institution governed by a board of directors, chaired by the Minister of Agriculture. The ARC comprises a well-distributed network of 16 institutes, 12 central laboratories, 10 regional stations and 46 specific research stations, 23 research administrations, 4 research extension and training centres to cover all the agro-ecological zones of Egypt. Moreover, research and agricultural experiments stations are distributed throughout six regions, namely; North Delta, Central Delta and Greater Cairo, West Delta, East Delta, Middle Egypt, New Valley and El-Fayoum; and Upper Egypt.
ARC staff includes about 9,538 researchers holding Ph.D., Master and Bachelor degrees, in different agricultural science branches, in addition to 27.4 thousand technicians and administrative employees.
ARC Significant Achievements in the field of Agricultural crops
· Regarding the increase in productivity of field crops in 2011, productivity of wheat rose to 2.75 ton/acre, maize to 3.4 ton/acre, faba bean to 1.3 ton/acre, rice to 4.02 ton/acre, and soya beans to 1.33 ton/acre.
· Screening more than 188 high yielding varieties and hybrids, in addition to 70 potential sub recorded varieties of different kinds of field crops.
· Generalization and expansion of the early, highly yielding varieties of rice, which contributes to decreasing irrigation water.
· Production of sun flower hybrids to decrease the gap between production and consumption of oil, and the most important early yielding varieties; Sakha 53 (90-95 days), and Giza 102 (80 days).
· Screening of 79 varieties and hybrids of vegetables, and medical and aromatic plants. The propagation of more than 8 potential high yielding varieties of sugar cane, and 23 varieties of sugar beet.
· Production of vegetables and fruits increased to 21 and 8.4 million tons, respectively, year 2010.
· Selection of new strains of horticulture crops, which are characterized by high quality and quantity yields. The cultivated fruit varieties reached 17 varieties.
Contact details: Agriculture Research Center 9, Gama St. Giza, EGYPT 12619 Phone: +20 2 35720944 Internet: www.arc.sci.eg
Desert Research Center (DRC)
Conducting research to explore the natural resources in the Egyptian deserts to be utilized in a sustainable manner in Agriculture while improving the livelihood of local communities. The broad mandate encompasses fields of research, such as water resources, soil management, plant production, animal husbandry, ecology, and socioeconomic studies. Monitoring and assessing desertification causes. Fields of operation is also broad-based, stretching from the Sinai to the New Valley to the fringes of the High Dam Lake.
The headquarters of the centre is in Cairo, but the main facilities of research and extension are based in desert stations. These stations are geographically distributed to represent different ecosystems in order to meet the challenges of each. For instance, there are four stations in Sinai namely; Sheikh Zuweid station, located in North Sinai for conservation and utilization of Plant Genetic resources, El-Maghara station located in south of El-Arish, in the middle of the Sinai, for water harvesting and range land management, Ras Sedr station located in South Sinai for Bio-saline agriculture Baloza station at El-Qantara for range land management and sand dunes fixation. Desert Research Centre has other stations in Matrouh, Toshka, Siwa, New Valley and Halayeb/Shalateen.
The beginning was early in 1927, when King Fouad I decided to establish an institute for the exploration of the Egyptian desert in order to evaluate its rich natural resources. The institute was inaugurated by King Farouk I in 1950. In 1990, the institute acquired the new name "Desert Research Centre" (DRC) with new structures, laws and by-laws. It has become a Centre belonging to the Ministry of Land Reclamation. Since then, the objectives of DRC have been developed to be in harmony with the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation development plans. This elevate applied research to be on top of priorities.
The centre constitutes of a number of administrative offices, in addition to the 8 Stations, and 5 Associated Units (Tissue Culture Lab., Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Satellite Receiving Station, Private Service Unit (PSU), and a Library). The Centre comprises 32 Laboratories, 4 Major Divisions and 14 Departments.Contact details: Desert Research Center (DRC)
1 Mathaf Al-Mataria-Cairo
The National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF)
The National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF) is one of the twelve national research institutions affiliated with the Ministry of State for Scientific Research of Egypt that are dealing with different fields of science and technology, with specific mandate of national relevance, assigned to each institute. The explicit mandate of NIOF is to maintain, protect and promote the different Egyptian aquatic environments.
Historically, the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries was first established in 1924 as the Hydrobiological Institute of the Egyptian Fisheries Directorate, and was located at El-Shatby in Alexandria. At a later date in 1931, it was renamed as "The Alexandria Institute of Hydrobiology" and relocated at Keyed Bey, on the Eastern Harbor of Alexandria, where the Mediterranean Branch of NIOF is presently located. In the mean time, a Marine Biological Station was established in 1928 at Hurghada, on the Red Sea for the Zoology Department of the Cairo University.
The Mission of the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries is to achieve sustainable development of marine and fresh water resources. This end is fulfilled through increasing their food potentials and working towards reducing poverty and improving the standard of living by developing and introducing new techniques in fisheries and aquaculture. In this context, recent technological advanced in aquatic researches enabled researchers and research institutions world-wide to obtain accurate information on the different aquatic environments. Hence, this enables the researchers to improve our knowledge of the economic resources in seas, lagoons and fresh water bodies and our understanding of their interactions with the influencing factors within and outside these environments.
NIOF gives high priority to applied research, focusing on the role of fisheries and aquaculture in improving the standard of living of the Egyptian society, and in attaining the environmental sustainability.
Aims and Objectives
Maintaining, promoting and conserving the water environments and their natural resources through:
· Providing data information about the Egyptian aquatic areas
· Studying and monitoring the physical, chemical and biological changes in the Egyptian waters
· Designing and using new and modern technologies for examining the topographic features and exploring the resources under the Egyptian sea beds
· Investigating possible hazardous phenomena such as storm surges, coastal erosion and the sudden increase of the sea water level
Promoting the fish production as main food source through:
· Exploiting the natural resources in a rational manner
· Discovering new fishing grounds
· Developing the fishing gears and methods for mid- and deep-water fisheries managements to protect the fish stocks
Increasing fish productivity through:
· Developing new methods of fish culture in marine floating aquaculture cages
· Developing fish hatcheries and increasing their productivity
· Intensifying research on protecting fishes against fish diseases
Contact details: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries 3 Aben Mahassen Street Moharem Bay Alexandria Tel./Fax: + 203 3929900 Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
In Egypt, modern universities appeared in the twentieth century, the idea of establishing a university was first circulated and then crystallized as a result of cultural and political awareness. According to 2011 data, there are 22 public universities under the supervision of the Supreme Council of Universities, with 350 faculties and another two public universities have been established in 2012. The state universities employ about 69,251 academic staff members to teach more than two millions under- and post-graduate students in 2010/2011. While private universities were under the supervision of private university councils and reached about 33 private universities by 2011. There are 51 public non-university higher education technical Institutes and colleges in many diverse fields.
The main regulating body in Egypt is the Ministry of Higher Education, which is responsible for setting higher education policy and insuring its implementation in the various universities. It is in charge of higher education, supervises, and coordinates all post secondary education, its planning, policy formulation, and quality control. It also oversees teacher training for secondary education.
According to the Egyptian constitution, education is free for all from basic up to higher education, with the State providing the largest share of funding. While officially the state is responsible for financing higher education, the State’s share of higher education funding for universities ranges from 85% to 90%, leaving the universities to generate the remaining portion (10 - 15%) themselves through various revenue-raising strategies.
Universities in Egypt have three main roles:
· Education (for students, either in Bachelor, Master or Doctorate levels)
· Community services (Centres of know-how and services to the community or industry)
In Egypt, research is conducted mainly at Universities and Research Centres. The ratio of researchers is 70:30, which means that most of the research is conducted at Universities. Nevertheless, as at least approximately 70%, of the funding received by universities from the government is spent on salaries and wages for staff members and university employees, this leaves very little for research funding